Page 1. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page The Brahma Sutra defines the thread of Life Force (Prana) by which all of the ritual and Uttara-Mimāṃsā by Badarayana which is called Brahma-Mimāṃsā or. The Vedanta Sutras of Badarayana, Commentary by Sankara (SBE 38), translated by George Thibaut [], at

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The Brahma sutras consists of aphoristic verses sutras in four chapters. The Brahmasutra badaaryana one of three most important texts in Vedanta along with the Principal Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita. It is also known as the Vedanta Sutra Sanskrit: The Brahma Sutras or Brahmasutra are attributed to Badarayana. The Brahma-sutra text is dated to centuries that followed Buddha and Hadarayanabecause it mentions and critiques the ideas of Buddhism and Badagayana in Chapter 2. Hermann Jacobi in early 20th century suggested that Madhyamaka Buddhist concepts such as Sunyavadaacknowledged in the Brahma-sutras, may be a late invention, and suggests that both Sunyavada and Brahma-sutras may therefore have emerged between CE.

Some scholars, such as Sengaku Badarayama, state Brahmasutra that has survived into the modern times may be the work of multiple authors but those who lived after Badarayana, and that these authors composed the currently surviving Brahmasutra starting about BCE through about CE. Natalia Isaeva states, “on the whole, scholars are rather unanimous, considering the most probable date for Brahmasutra sometime between the 2nd-century BCE and the 2nd-century CE.

The Brahmasutra text has Adhikaranas. Sutras were meant to assist the memory of the student who had gone through long discussions with his guru, as memory badaarayana or clues and maximum thoughts were compressed in a few words which were unambiguous, giving the essence of the arguments on the topic. The Brahmasutra, states Sengaku Mayeda, distills and consolidates the extensive teachings found in a variety of Upanishads of Hinduism, summarizing, arranging, unifying and systematizing the Upanishadic theories.

The text reviews and critiques most major sitras schools of Hindu philosophy as well as all heterodox Indian philosophies such as Buddhism, with the exception of Samkhya and Yoga philosophies which it holds in high regards and recurrently refers to them in all its four chapters, adding in sutras 2.

The sutras of the Brahmasutra are aphorisms, which Paul Deussen states to be “threads stretched out in weaving to form the basis of the web”, and intelligible “when the woof is zutras with a commentary.

The first chapter is regarded in Vedanta tradition as Samanvaya Harmonybecause it distills, synchronizes and brings into a harmonious whole the seemingly diverse and conflicting passages in various Sruti texts. This Brahmasutra chapter asserts that all the Upanishads primarily aim and coherently describe the knowledge and meditation of Brahmanthe ultimate reality.

The only source for the knowledge of this Brahman is the Sruti or the Upanishads. The remaining sutras in Pada 1. The first chapter in sutras 1. The second Brahmasutra chapter has been variously interpreted by various monist, theistic and other sub-schools of Vedanta. The Brahmasutra asserts in 2.

The sutras in Pada 2. The atomistic physico-theological theories of Vaisheshika and Samkhya school are the focus of the first seventeen sutras of Pada 2.

The theories of other orthodox traditions are discussed in 2. The first eight case studies in the third Pada of chapter 2 discuss whether the world has an origin or not, whether the universe is co-eternal with Brahman or is an effect of Brahman interpreted as dualistic God in theistic sub-schools of Vedantaand badarayyana the universe returns into Brahman periodically. The last Pada of the second chapter extracts and summarizes the theories of human body, sensory organs, action organs and their relationship to Prana vital breath in the various Vedic Brahmanas and Upanishads.

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The topics discussed are diverse. The third Brahmasutra chapter focuses on the bzdarayana of spiritual knowledge and epistemic paths to it.

VEDÂNTA-SÛTRAS

The third padastates George Thibaut, opens a new section and theme in chapter 3 of the Brahma-sutras, asserting that meditation is central to the Vedic texts, and summarizing the Vedic theories, from different Shakha Vedic schoolson “how the individual soul is enabled by meditation on Brahman to obtain final release”. Meditation is defined in Vedanta texts of commentary on the Sutras, states Klaus Witz, as “a continuous succession of comparable basic conceptions, beliefs, not interspersed with dissimilar ones, which proceeds according to the scriptures and relates to an object enjoined in the scriptures”.

The Brahma-sutra, in Adhikaranas of third and fourth pada, states Thibaut, assert that there is no contradiction in these teachings and that “the different Upanishads have to be viewed as teaching the same matter, and therefore the ideas must be combined in one meditation”. And for this very reason there is no need of the lighting of the fire and so on.

The sutras, translates Thibaut, derive from the Vedic texts that there is “a prohibition of doing harm to any living creature”, however, the scriptures state, “only in danger of life, in cases of highest need, food of any kind is permitted to be eaten”.

The last three sutras of the chapter 3 assert that a person, pursuing means to spiritual knowledge, should seek a childlike state of innocence, a psychological state that is free of anger, self-centeredness, pride and arrogance. This is the shortest chapter with 78 sutras and 38 adhikaranas. The opening sutras of chapter 4 continue the discussion of meditation as means to knowledge, with sutra 4. On the Soul’s having attained the Highest light, there is manifestation of its real nature, as we infer from the word own.

The Self whose true nature has manifested itself is released; according to the promise made by scripture. The light into which the soul enters is the Self, owing to the subject-matter of the chapter. The released soul abides in non-division from the highest Self Brahmanbecause that is seen. The liberated soul, asserts the Brahma-sutra, is of the nature of Brahman, with inner power and knowledge, free from evil, free from grief, free from suffering, one of bliss and “for such there is freedom in all worlds”.

Numerous commentaries have been written on the Brahma-sutra text, but many such as that of Bodhayana, [note 7] Upavarsa, [note 8] and eighteen out of twenty one mentioned by Narayana in Madhvavijaya-bhava-prakashika are considered lost. The diversity of Brahma-sutra commentaries by various sub-schools of Hinduism see table attests to the central importance of the Upanishads, that the text summarizes. The sutras in the text can be, and have been read in different ways.

The text is part of the Prasthanatrayior the three starting points for the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy. The nature and influence of Brahma-sutra, states Paul Deussen, “stands to the Upanishad’s in the same relation as the Christian Dogmatics to the New Testament: The Vedas, according to Vedanta, consists of two parts, states Deussen, which show “far reaching analogy with the Old and New Testaments”, a Part of Works karma-kanda which includes the benedictory mantrassacrifices and ceremonies like the Old Testament, and a Part of Knowledge jnana-kanda which focuses on metaphysical questions about the world, creator, soul, theology, morals and virtues like the New Testament.

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The impact of Brahma-sutra text on Vedanta, and in turn Hinduism, has been historic and central, states Nakamura: The prevalence of Vedanta thought is found not only in philosophical writings but also in various forms of Hindu literature, such as the epics, lyric poetry, drama and so forth. What is especially worthy of attention is that the Hindu religious sects, the common faith of the Indian populace, looked to Vedanta philosophy for the theoretical foundations for their theology.

The influence of Vedanta is prominent in the sacred literatures of Hinduism, such as the various Puranas, Samhitas, Agamas and Tantras. Many commentaries on the fundamental scripture of Vedanta, the Brahmasutrawere written by the founders or leading scholars of the various sects of Hinduism, and they are transmitted to this day as documents indispensable in the respective sectarian traditions.

The majority of the traditional and conservative scholars in India today, called Pandits, are students of Vedanta, and an overwhelming number belong to the lineage of Shankara — five sixths of all Pandits, according to some authorities. The Vedanta contained in the Upanishads, then formulated in the Brahma Sutraand finally commented and explained by Shankara, is an invaluable key for discovering the deepest meaning of all the religious doctrines and for realizing that the Sanatana Dharma secretly penetrates all the forms of traditional spirituality.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Hindu scriptures and texts Shruti Smriti Vedas. Chronology of Hindu texts. For example, Ramanuja counts sutras 2.

Thus, the total number of Adhikaranas in the Brahma sutra text varies slightly from in some Vedanta sub-schools. See page li in Thibaut’s Introduction. It is the cause of the evil that exists within the world. Remove ignorance and one will realize that atman is Brahman. It is also the crucial philosophical issue within Advaita thought. Advaita need not explain why a perfect deity was motivated to create the world, nor why an all-loving God created a world with evil.

Ultimately, for Advaita, there is no creation, nor any God who creates the world.

The highest truth is Brahman, one without a second, the true suutras, atman. However, the arguments offered by monist and theistic sub-schools of Vedanta differ, particularly those of Shankara, Madhva and Ramanuja, with the latter two also refuting the arguments of Shankara in this section. Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History.

A Survey of Hinduism: State University of New York Press. Cross-Cultural and Comparative Perspectives Editor: Structural Depths of Indian Thought. Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda. Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad. Ayurveda Dhanurveda Natya Shastra Sthapatyaveda. Retrieved from ” https: Articles containing Sanskrit-language text All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November Views Read Edit View history.

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Part of a series on. Other scriptures Bhagavad Gita Agamas.

Brahma Sutras – Wikipedia

Timeline Chronology of Hindu texts. Bhaskara, [] Yadava Prakasha []. Qualified Advaita Vaishnavism []. Madhva, also badarayanz as Purnaprajna and Ananda Teertha []. Theistic Monism Saiva Siddhanta [] []. Inconceivable Oneness and Difference.

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