Bernard Mandeville taught us that self-interest and the desire for material well- being, commonly stigmatized as vices, are in fact the incentives. Bernard de Mandeville, or Bernard Mandeville, as he chose to call himself in .. Bernard Mandeville, M.D. Author of the Fable of the Bees, of a Treatise of the. This masterpiece of eighteenth-century British satire sparked great social controversy by rejecting a positive view of human nature and arguing the necessity.
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The date of this letter must be later than 3 April for Sloane was not made a baronet till then. This book is published by Liberty Fund, Inc. This Liberty Fund edition of is an exact photographic reproduction of the edition published by Oxford University Press in Printed and bound by Edwards Brothers, Inc. He goes more into his subject. But the reader will discover very little insistence on this fact in the present edition. An editor, I think, may well post upon his study walls Dr. I have consistently tried to orient Mandeville in the stream of thought of his period by a constant paralleling of his text with the works of his contemporaries or predecessors, so that the measure of his difference from or kinship with the speculation of his age may always be apparent.
Where the thought considered was common, I have cited only enough representative passages to bear out the fact of its commonness, or such anticipations as might be sources; where the sentiment was rare, I have usually given all the parallels found, whether or not sources.
Since, however, a scholarly edition is not a text-book, Edition: And throughout I have been more interested in background than in sources. In no edition can the commentary be exactly adapted to all the readers, and the difficulty of suiting the notes to the bdrnard is especially great in the present case. The Fable of the Bees is concerned with so wide a range of thought that it is of import not only to those whose interest is primarily literary, but also to specialists in the te of ths and philosophy, and to Americans and Europeans as well as Englishmen.
Consequently, what is extremely obvious to one reader may seem recondite to another, and an explanation which is a necessity for the one may impress the other as an insult to his education. I ask pardon of those whom I have thus outraged, having made it a rule to annotate when in doubt, on the ground that it is very easy to skip, but not so easy to supply an omission.
In determining what obsolete or technical words demanded elucidation I have tried to base my choice as objectively as possible, not simply conjecturing what words might justly perplex the reader. A word not found in both these works is, I have assumed, sufficiently recondite to excuse annotation for the sake of either the American or the English reader. I have not employed sic to indicate berard errors in passages and titles cited. The reader may assume that the attempt has always been made to quote verbatim and literatim.
I have, however, taken care to cite nothing Edition: Since the Fable of the Bees was published in two bers at different times, this edition is built on two basic texts of different date.
I have preferred the text adopted, because, other things being equal, the last authorized edition 1 seemed to me preferable to an intermediate one and because the orthography of the edition is more modern.
Mandeville’s Fable of the Bees – Poem
For the first volume, the editions used are those of,, andas well as the original edition of the Grumbling Hive see below, i. Variations considered of sufficient interest for record comprise 1 all differences of text in which substitution, addition, or subtraction of words is involved, 2 contractions and expansions of words where the change causes a difference in pronunciation e.
Variations due to misprints have not been noted except where there might be doubt as to the fact of the misprint, or where it made good sense. Variations in capitalization have not been noted, nor have differences in spelling, except in the special case of a proper name, where the alteration had significance see below, i.
Although technically a change of word, the consistent alteration of whilst in the earlier editions to while in the last edition has been treated as the mere change of spelling which for practical purposes it was. Nor have I listed the frequent changes from humane to human.
Likewise, the many fab,e of terminal cy to ce and cies to ces e. In the case of references by Mandeville to the page numbers of other parts of his book, the numbers of which beez, of course, according to the bernardd, no variants are given, except where the reference is different not only in number but in fact.
The presence of lists of errata has not been noted with a few significant exceptionsbut the corrections have been made as indicated in the various texts.
The basic texts and are reprinted unaltered in every way except that misprints have been corrected when it was quite certain that they were misprints, and that the punctuation of the basic text has been changed where it was too misleading. The latter has been done, however, only in the few cases where the pointing was so perplexed that it was more annoying than is the presence of the note with which I have always accompanied a correction; and, with three exceptions see i.
In every case whatever, I have always fully indicated all changes made in the vernard text, with the authority for the change found in mandevjlle other editions. The occasional semicolon where we should now never use it e. The original pagination of the basic texts is indicated in brackets in the margin throughout, so if references to Mandeville in previous critical works may be more easily traced.
In my textual notes, the different editions are discriminated by the last two numbers of their date—e. Both editions are designated as 14 where the variants noted are identical in both editions; where the variants differ the first printing is referred to as 14 1the second, as 14 2.
The presumed second printing of sheet O in the edition of Part II see below, ii. In noting variants lemmas were thought unnecessary and omitted where a single word is substituted for another single word. It may be assumed that an edition not named in a textual note is identical as regards the variant considered with the text bernrad. The decorations are all bernadd from books printed by James Roberts between andand chiefly from various editions of the Fable. This edition is an elaboration of a dissertation presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Yale University in I gratefully confess my debt for aid given me at Bees by Professors G.
Since then I have incurred pleasant obligations to many other friends. Case, Professor Gustave Cohen, Dr.
Snow have given me valuable criticism and suggestions.
Miss Simone Ratel and Mrs. Osler have aided me to find references and verify the proof. Dodge have greatly helped me in collating and preparing the text. George Ostler, of the Oxford Press, has kindly taken on his shoulders the task of making the te. Koch I owe especial gratitude for making this book, as it were, his foster-child—he will know what I mean.
Nor am I forgetful of the patience and goodwill with which the Press has placed its wisdom at my disposal. But above all I am indebted to my colleague, Professor R. Crane, to whose painstaking criticism and literary and scholarly tact this edition owes so much that were it not pleasurable thf would be embarrassing to make acknowledgement.
Early life in Holland, p. Career in England, p.
The literary manceville, p. Analysis of the paradox as embodied in the Fablep. Of the two contrary standards simultaneously adopted by Mandeville, which was his genuine attitude?
Certain misunderstood economic doctrines: Mandeville and Shaftesbury, p. International character of the background, p.
Influence of individual predecessors: Vogue of the Fablep. Influence on ethical thought: Influence on economic theory: Other influence by Mandeville, p. Bernard de Mandeville, or Bernard Mandeville, as he chose to call himself in later life, 3 was baptized in Rotterdam, 20 November Nevertheless, he was registered the next year, 17 September, as a student in Philosophy.
This would explain his being once more entered in the Album Studiosorum Academiae inthe nineteenth of March, 1 on the thirtieth of fwble month he took the degree of Doctor of Medicine, 2 apparently returning only for mandevklle purpose. By he had achieved his wish of learning the language, for in that year he published the first extant of the English works which were to make him known to all the western world. History now becomes paradoxical. She notes a couple of his dwelling-places, 5 lists his literary works, 6 and records his death.
That is almost all. Stephani Coleman street Lond et obijt 21 instan. The affidavit dated 31 January to the genuineness of the will, preserved with it at Somerset House, was signed by John Brotherton the publisher and Daniel Wight. But though record has been thus discreet, Edition: The brilliant free-thinking doctor was a kind of scarecrow to frighten ministers with, and the most damning whispers about him rustle through the pages of the eighteenth century:.
The nearest approach to fablr scandals was furnished by Sir John Hawkins, one of the most unamiable liars who ever lived.
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Mandeville [he said], 3 whose christian thhe was Bernard, was a native of Dort in Holland. He came to England young, and, as he says in some of his writings, 4 was so pleased with the country, that he took up his residence in it, and made the language his study.
He lived in obscure lodgings in London, and betook himself to the profession of physic, but was never able to acquire much practice. I once heard a London physician, who had married the daughter of one of that trade, mention him as a good sort of man, and one that Edition: He is said to have been coarse and overbearing in his manners where he durst be so; yet a great flatterer of some vulgar Dutch merchants, who allowed him a pension.
This last information comes bdrnard a clerk of a city attorney, through whose hands the money passed. If Mandeville wrote to increase the use of spirituous liquors, careful search beez the contemporary journals has failed to reveal the fact.
A friend of Mandeville gave Hawkins a medical opinion, and without the slightest apparent reason Hawkins assumed that this friend, although himself a physician, must have learned the opinion from Mandeville. Backer held in trust for him.
At any rate, there is positive evidence that Hawkins was romancing. Mandeville was one of the most successful fo and widely famed men of his day. His works were selling not only by editions but literally by dozens of editions. On the contrary, a contemporary fabpe spoke of Edition: It is to be noted, furthermore, that Mandeville felt able to take the notice of his medical skill which appeared in the first edition of his Treatise 1 out of the later one.
This letter shows Mandeville in consultation with the famous court physician and on terms of easy familiarity with manveville. Mandeville, moreover, was a friend of the gernard and powerful Lord Chancellor, the Earl of Macclesfield.
The attachment between the Earl of Macclesfield and Mandeville has been noted a number of times, 4 and a letter from Mandeville to the Chancellor indicates Edition: Finally, Mandeville, when he died, managed to leave behind him a competency which, measured by the monetary standards of the day, was at least respectable. Not that I love to be idle; but I want to be employed to my own liking; and if a Man gives away to others two thirds of the Time he is awake, I think he deserves to mandevllle the rest for himself.