Obras completas Formulaciones sobre los dos principios del acaecer psíquico Lo inconciente De guerra y muerte. Temas de actualidad La transitoriedade. Formulaciones sobre los dos principios del acaecer psíquico. . Formulaciones sobre los dos principios del acaecer psíquicio. (). FREUD, S. () Obras completas. Buenos Aires: Amorrortu. [ Links ]. FREUD, S. () “Formulaciones sobre los dos principios del acaecer psíquico”, v.
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The present paper discusses the main problems raised by the psychologist’s intervention on a palliative care unit, principioa a psychoanalytic perspective. Parting from fragments of clinical cases and literature passages, it debates issues like the finitude of the subject, grief and the transference relationship. It concludes that a place where the patient can be listened, may crystallize something from the subject’s speech and even write his own history, in what can be called a process of subjective construction, at this terminal point of the existence.
Man has to “face the awareness that his existence is finite. This means to be born under a aacaecer sentence. If I was an animal Melancholia is “a pungent parable of the end of the world that every human being will have to go through when living his own death”. One does not openly face the end of life. It is with fear that we think of our own death. According to Freud bp. In other words, death doesn’t exist for the unconscious and “it behaves as if it were immortal” b, p.
Although man might have tasted the pain of losing a beloved being, “he cannot experience himself as being dead” b, p.
That is because, as traumatic as those may be, he can only have records of his experiences, never of his own death. As Tolstoyp. He knew, deep in his heart, that he was dying, but not only couldn’t he get accustomed to the thought, he simply, in any way, couldn’t grasp it”.
Hence, given its impossibility, one does not speak of one’s own death. Paradoxically, finitude is the foundation of man. In other words, man has always been finite. According to Heidegger, man exists in a finite way; he is neither anterior to finitude nor there is a way it will not affect him. His death is certain and, concomitantly, undetermined as when it will occur: That is, “it’s a constant risk, since it is neither possible to control nor to calculate the possibility of its existence even if what daily prevails is the movement to avoid the encounter with it” LEITE, We witness, then, little daily situations of flight from death and death denial, that is, finitude: As of now, that is, with Clarice Lispector,p.
This way, that from which we have news is from the collective repercussion of death, in the death of others. This, Tolstoyp. Why, that might suddenly happen to me too now, anytimehe thought, and for a moment, felt terrified”. In losing one’s object of love, there is an ambivalent feeling: That is what we see in: Joy by identification with the object – in he died, I didn’t. But, in addition, at that moment, comes up the affective ambivalence inherent to loving relationships themselves if we understand, with Freud ap.
That is to say, the coincidence of love and hate is intrinsic to loving relationships – what Lacanp. This is what we witness in the wife of W.
Daniel Paul Schreber
She tells us of how they met and how they fell in love. She tells us of the marriage, the children, the betrayal and the separation. She refers to W. It is possible to read there the fusion of love and hate that are, in a certain way, inseparable. We also encounter this ambivalent feeling when facing the death of the loved object in Machado de Assisp. He didn’t leave her anymore; he stared at the blurred and cold eye in that slow and painful decomposition of life; drank, one at a time, the afflictions of the beautiful creature, now thin and transparent, devoured by the fever and mined by death.
A very rough selfishness, hungry for sensations, he did not forgive her a single minute of agony, neither paid them with a single drop of tear, public nor intimate. It’s only when she expired that he became dazed. When he recovered his senses, he saw that he was alone once more An ambivalence also found in Tolstoy’s Prascoviap. And the more she pitied herself, the more she hated her husband.
Daniel Paul Schreber Research Papers –
She began to wish he would die, yet she did not want him to die”. He hates her with his whole soul. And, touched by her, he is forced to suffer an influx of hate”p. When working in a palliative care unit where the experience of death is so pungent, it is important to acknowledge that there are limits prinipios the point ros view of the cure – since we’re dealing with patients beyond any possibility of remission – but this doesn’t necessarily imply a restriction of care.
What is at stake is the possibility of moving the problematics from the field of failure to the field of personal experience in which death is seen not as doz matter but as an existential one. In other words, dealing with the matter of the prognostic of the disease – his own or a family pslquico – in the field of impossibility, places the subject in another position than doing it in the field of impotence.
Dealing with the matter from an impotent position may lead the subject to a feeling of guilt and to the ” what if I had done things differently? If the subject decides to accept that he is facing something impossible, the inexorable of death, other doors might open.
It is here, then, that we raise a question: Let’s recall the case of A. Weddings are not uncommon in such circumstances. Somehow, the subject only decides to marry when in his death bed. That brings us to Shakespeare and to prince Cos tragedy. Only after being inoculated with a princupios poison, can Hamlet act and kill his uncle Claudius, thus avenging the death of the king, his father. He only acts when mortally wounded, in the short interval of time that he has between received death and losing himself in it LACAN,p.
It’s the cut in this case, literal, with Laertes’ poisoned sword of death that brings urgency. What is curious is that we watch, throughout the entire play and up to this point, to Hamlet’s series of postponements of the fulfillment of his revenge.
He procrastinates and hesitates. To die, to sleep”p. It’s the neurotic willingness to sleepin order to eel confront the risks of desiring, that is, that which moves him. Paradoxically, in order to protect principlos from the dangers acaece life, Hamlet is always grappling with death.
In his trajectory, risk is avoided and, for that, he fears death by dying a little as he chooses a mortifying life. In other words, in the intention of avoiding death, death makes itself present as he, Hamlet, mummifies himself as he awaits for it. Procrastination places him, from the beginning, in the present since, living in the wait for death, he is, for starters, already dead. How is it possible then that only when hooked to death, can he act?
He only reaches out to Ophelia once she is definitely marked by impossibility, that is, once she’s dead and in her coffin from where she cannot call on him for nothing prlncipios.
In the play, he avoids confronting the woman that seems to awake his desire. It’s only when he isn’t risking anything anymore that Hamlet throws himself in Ophelia’s grave. We allow ourselves a provocation here: We see, then, that, in a certain way, the mark of death brings with itself a thrust towards action. He who spends his life protecting himself, throws himself in the direction of desire in this ultimate moment as witnesses the prince:.
Defense mechanisms exist and, with them, important moments in the process of subjective elaboration. Not being exclusive to patients receiving bad news concerning a prognostic, family members and closed ones can also be subject to them.
These phases are not set, can alternate themselves and have a variable duration. These are sayings of patients in the denial phase. This is the neurotic dimension of the subject’s denial when face to face with his mortal condition, with the transience of his own existence, as previously seen.
According to Freudp. This means that, through the mark of denial, “thought frees itself from repression’s constraintsp. In an analysis, one discards the denial. For instance, when a patient, concerning a dream, says it’s not my mother, it’s as if he was saying: To which follows the bargain: And so, one first demands, then one asks for a favor. The next phase is depression. The author establishes the difference between a reactive depression, of a defensive nature, and a preparatory depression that establishes itself as a tool during the preparation of the imminent loss, on the way towards the next and final phase: According to the author, the patient contemplates, then, his near end in a certain peaceful expectation after having felt anger, envy, depression and after having lamented the loss.
We come to understand the moment as a certain resignation on the part of the subject when confronting the impossible. On the other hand, Freudp.
Hence, it doesn’t only concern the loss of dear a person. Mourning implies the loss of interest in the outside world viewed as poor and shallowthe loss of the ability of choosing a new object of love and the inhibition of all productivity. The author speaks of an anticipated mourning, a defense against existence’s transience and alerts us that “the value of beauty is independent of absolute duration” FREUD,p. Or, in the words of Fernando Sabino”the value of things is not in the time they last but in the intensity with which they happen”.
Following Freudp. The mourning is there, in the “pertinacity of holding on to the sources of pleasures that one disposes of and in the difficulty in renouncing them”.
He opposes normal mourning to pathological mourning, which he will call melancholia. As painful as it can be, mourning expires spontaneously and “our libido becomes once again free to, if we are young and capable of life, find substitutes for the lost objects in other ones that can be, if possible, as much or even more appreciated than the previous ones” FREUD,p. We understand young and capable of life not so much as something concerning age but as subjective position, an active and desiring position.