Download Citation on ResearchGate | The Rise of Illiberal Democracy | Around the world, democratically elected regimes are routinely Fareed Zakaria. Almost a decade ago, Fareed Zakaria published an article claiming that ‘illiberal democracies’, i.e., countries combining the presence of free and fair elections. An illiberal democracy, also called a partial democracy, low intensity democracy, empty The term illiberal democracy was used by Fareed Zakaria in a regularly cited article in the journal Foreign Affairs. . The Rise of Illiberal Democracy , Fareed Zakaria, Foreign Affairs, November/ December ; Liberalism and.

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Adding the liberties to allow its citizens protections from an arbitrary judiciary whether in direct control of the executive branch or not, should help it survive in the future. She first argues that elections help leaders resolve threats from elites and from the masses by appeasing those capable of usurping power with money and securing the cooperation of the general public tue political concessions.

This anti-liberal concept is just the type of activity that Zakaria states accompanies modern illiberal democracies. Zakaria does not ignore the fact that the election of popular leaders and their subsequent suspension of constitutional protocols typically occurs because of threats rixe populace face seem more dangerous than the consolidation of power within the executive.

The Iraqi Constitution does forbid physical coercion of self-incriminating testimony, however stops short of preventing it altogether. New York, New York, W. Is the promotion of strong constitutional institutions possible when a populace believes they are barriers to solutions, and not guarantors of their rights? Zakaria expresses fears that democracies will become illiberal if the executive branch transfers power from other branches to itself or usurps the rights of individuals or institutions.

Over time, as Singapore’s ruling People’s Action Party government consolidated power in the s and s, it enacted a number of laws and policies that curtailed constitutional freedoms such as the right to assemble or form associationsbearing in mind that there were race and religious riots at these timesand extended its influence over the mediaunions, NGOs and academia. Writers such as Steven Levitsky and Lucan Way reject the concept of an illiberal democracy, saying it only “muddies the waters” on the basis that if a country does not have opposition parties and an independent media, it is not democratic.

Zakaria believes these liberties must be present for the prevention of an illiberal democracy, and that illiberal democracies will be in direct or indirect conflict with liberal ones.

Illiberal democracy

It does not reject the fundamental principles of liberalism such as freedom, and I could list a few more, but it does not make this ideology the central element of state organisation, but instead includes a different, special, national approach. These lawfully elected governments nationalize property; suspend some independent government institutions such as legislative or judicial branches of government ; and compel individuals by force to comply with executive directives regardless of the directives legality.


Commune City-state National government Intergovernmental organisation World government. A useful amendment may be something to the effect that all Iraqi citizens reaching the age of majority, regardless of sex, age, religion, income, or personal preferences should not be denied the right to vote.

Such a statement would prevent legislation denying arbitrary restriction to voting in Federal elections, thereby usurping the economic and political power of their constituency. And so in this sense the new state that we are constructing in Hungary is an illiberal state, a non-liberal state. Limiting federal government powers in Iraq may prove to be important to its ultimate evolution, but may be a cause of its failure in its current nascent stage.

Third World Quarterly, Once elected these illiberal governments do not respect individual rights. Effects on health and education are as strong as those of democracy and are significantly better than in non-electoral autocracy.

A Critical Note on ‘The Rise of Illiberal Democracy’

Zakaria seems to ignore the fact that illiberla free elections have been suspended a democracy ceases to exist. With that in mind there are several amendments from the US Constitution that would benefit the Iraqi Constitution. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

In hybrid regimes, freedoms exist and the opposition illibrral allowed to compete in elections, but the system of checks and balances becomes inoperative. At the birth of the US, liberalism was more present than any pretense of democracy. The rulers may centralize powers between branches of the central government and local government exhibiting no separation of powers.

Zakaria fared that the writers or the United States constitution wanted it to forestall democracy, by creating obstacles to a majority opinion wishing to overstep the rights of states or the rights of individuals. Elections and Distributive Politics in Mubarak’s Risse.

Despotism Dictatorship Military dictatorship. Zakaria advances institutions like the World Trade Organizationthe Federal Reserve Systemand a check on power in the form of the judiciary to promote democracy and limit the power of people which can be destructive.

Illiberal democracy – Wikipedia

Political Institutions Under Dictatorship. According to Zakaria, illiberal democracies are increasing around the world and are increasingly limiting the freedoms of the people they represent.

Hitler faced the scourge of hyperinflation. Only free white men had the right to vote. Thus, Levitsky and Way coined a new term to remove the positive connotation of democracy from these states and distinguish them from flawed or developing democracies: Miller, multiparty autocratic elections predict significantly better outcomes on health, education, gender equality, and basic freedoms zakariaa to non-electoral autocracy.


The Russian Federation under Vladimir Putin has also been described as an illiberal democracy. But around the world, the two concepts are coming apart. Democrscy is a spectrum of illiberal democracies: Iraqi citizens may be arrested, thrown in prison, and left to rot, without any protections what-so-ever. These illiberal governments allow leaders to presume they have a mandate from their election to make policy decisions for their constituency as if it was a unified block, instead of individuals with varied backgrounds, beliefs, interests, and concerns.

Elections take place regularly, but many foreign observers e. US elections are free and fair, dekocracy those elected have powers which offset each other, thereby preventing power from gradually migrating to one office.

The Return of History: Meyersson also notes that despite Hungary’s self-declared illiberalism, it ranked no worse than Bulgaria and ahead of Serbia using Freedom House’ liberty measure.

There are many countries “that are categorized as neither ‘free’ nor ‘not free’, but as ‘probably free’, falling somewhere between democratic and nondemocratic regimes”. The growth of illiberal democracies will eventually give democracy in general a bad name that will be a hindrance when trying to promote its benefits or at least the benefits of constitutional democracies to emerging governments. He argues that democracy without constitutional liberalism is producing centralized regimes, the erosion of liberty, ethnic competition, conflict, and war.

How Democracies Promote Prosperity and Peace. Constitutional republics should focus their diplomatic energies to ensure that freely elected democracies develop constitutional institutions to ensure that embryonic democracies do not develop into illiberal democracies. Zakaria believes that constitutional liberalism can fareee democracy, but not vice versa. Zakaria points out that in the Westelectoral democracy and civil liberties of speech, religion, etc.

He claimed that the party’s goal was to create “an illiberal state, a non-liberal state [that] does not reject the fundamental principles of liberalism such as freedom, and I could list a few more, but it does not make this ideology the central element of state organisation, but instead includes a different, special, national approach.

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